Diabetes can be described as a group of metabolic diseases. It is a condition in which a person has high blood glucose levels for prolonged periods. Doctors often refer to it as “Diabetes Mellitus”. The high blood sugar levels are due to inadequate insulin production in the body. Or it could be due to the inability of the body cell’s response to the insulin produced.
Diabetes is a chronic disease. If left untreated, then it can lead to serious complications. Patients with this condition often experience the frequent urge to urinate. They also become increasingly thirsty and hungry.
Types of Diabetes and Causes
There are three main types of this condition.
It can affect both adults and children. People usually develop type 1 in their early adulthood or teenage years. Pancreas produce insulin. Insulin is the hormone that controls blood sugar levels. The insulin producing beta cells of pancreas are lost in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This leads to insulin deficiency in the body.
Majority of the type 1 is autoimmune in nature. In this case, the T-cell mediated immune system destroys the beta cells of pancreas. Type 1 DM is partly inheritable with multiple genes known to influence the risk of diabetes. Environmental factors can trigger the onset of type 1 DM in genetically susceptible people. The complications of Type 1 DM include irregular blood glucose levels and infection.