The risk factors can be categorized as modifiable and non-modifiable. The non modifiable risk factors include the following:
1.Age – The human body undergoes several changes as we age. Hormone levels is one of the them. In women, estrogen levels decrease during menopause which is related to bone loss. Also surgical removal of ovaries has the same effect. In men, the deficiency of testosterone has a similar effect. Women are more likely prone to osteoporosis than men.
- Heredity: If there is a history of osteoporosis or fracture in the family, the members of that family are more prone to it.
- Caucasians and Asians have greater risk than other ethnic groups.
The modifiable risk factors are as follows:
- Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking increases the chances of osteoporosis.
- Vitamin D deficiency and malnutrition are associated with decreased bone health and may lead to osteoporosis.
Medical disorders directly or indirectly associated with bone health may cause osteoporosis. Rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, thyroid, anorexia, Turner’s syndrome, Parkinson’s disease are some of the few that may lead to osteoporosis.